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Orthopedic Conditions & Treatments

Whether from a fall, a sports injury, or the wear and tear of life, orthopedic injuries can be painful and inconvenient. From plantar fasciitis to knee pain to tendonitis, we treat the full range of orthopedic conditions.

The orthopedic team at Norwalk Hospital uses the latest, most advanced technology available to provide expert treatment, surgical and non-surgical, including sports medicine and the full range of orthopedic conditions. We offer the complete continuum of multidisciplinary care for musculoskeletal conditions, including physical therapy and rehabilitation:

Imaging Procedures

  • X-ray
  • CT Scan
  • MRI
  • Radiographs: Imaging studies, typically using x-ray, to examine the affected body part and identify the source of pain

Orthopedic Treatments

  • Arthroplasty: Surgery to replace, repair or resurface a joint affected by arthritis.
  • Arthroscopy: A minimally invasive surgical technique to repair injury to a joint
  • Closed reduction: A non-surgical method of setting a fractured bone in place so it can heal.
  • Core decompression: A surgical procedure to treat avascular necrosis by drilling a small hole into the diseased bone, often followed by a bone graft.
  • Fixation: Surgery to implant a permanent rod to secure a broken bone.
  • Joint replacement and partial joint replacement: Surgery to replace, fully or partially, a damaged joint with an artificial one.
  • Medical Management: Medication can be used for pain relief or to address the underlying causes of the inflammation, illness or injury that is causing discomfort.
  • Open Reduction and Internal Fixation (ORIF): A two-part surgery to fix broken bones. The first step is putting the bone back in place; the second step is securing it with an internal “fixation” device.
  • Physical Therapy (PT) and/or Occupational Therapy (OT): Physical therapy (PT) focuses on helping your injury or impairment to heal, while occupational therapy (OT) focuses on helping the patient perform activities required in daily life.
  • Steroid injection: An injection of cortisone to provide pain relief in an inflamed joint.

Arthritis (Osteoarthritis)

Arthritis is inflammation of a joint. There are several different types; the most common is osteoarthritis, caused by wear and tear, usually from age or overuse. Other kinds of arthritis can be caused by genetics or illness.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • X-ray
  • Arthroscopy
  • Medication
  • Surgery
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Avascular Necrosis

Avascular necrosis (death of bone tissue) is caused by reduced blood supply to the bones. Symptoms include painful joints and high risk for fracture. Causes include medications, alcoholism, autoimmune disease, cancer and other illnesses.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • X-ray and other radiographic imaging techniques
  • Medical management
  • Surgery, Core decompression, Total hip replacement
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Bone Spurs

Bone spurs (also called osteophytes) are lumps that grow onto the bone, typically caused by repetitive stress or trauma. They can occur anywhere but usually are found in joints.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Surgery

Bursitis

Bursitis is an inflammation in the bursa, fluid-filled sacs acting as cushions between joints. Usual causes are injury, repetitive stress or pressure.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Medication
  • Surgery
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Elbow

The complex elbow joint not only controls the in and out, up and down movement of the lower arm, but also controls rotation of the wrist and hand.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Medication
  • Surgery: Total Elbow Arthroplasty
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Tendonitis

Inflammation of the tendons anywhere in the body, often due to overuse.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Medical management
  • Physical therapy

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is loss of bone mass, typically associated with age, that causes bones to become weak, brittle and subject to easy breakage. Though it occurs more commonly in women, men get osteoporosis too.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Medical management
  • Physical therapy

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis, which affects people of all ages, is a chronic inflammation of the joints.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Medical management
  • Physical therapy

One quarter of the 206 bones in the human body are in the foot and ankle, which also contain 33 joints and more than 100 muscles and tendons.

Achilles Tendonitis

A common injury among runners, Achilles tendonitis is inflammation of the Achilles tendon that, at the back of the lower leg, connects the calf muscles to the heel bone.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Medication
  • Surgery
  • Physical therapy

Arthritis

Arthritis is inflammation of a joint. There are several different types; the most common is osteoarthritis, caused by wear and tear, usually from age or overuse. Other kinds of arthritis can be caused by genetics or illness.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Medication
  • Surgery: Total Ankle Arthroplasty
  • Physical therapy

Bone Spurs

Bone spurs (also called osteophytes) are lumps that grow onto the bone, typically caused by repetitive stress or trauma. They can occur anywhere but usually are found in joints.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Medical Management
  • Surgery
  • Physical therapy

Bunions

Bunions are bony lumps that can form at the base of the big toe, causing it to bend in the direction of the other toes.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Surgery
  • Physical therapy

Corns and Callouses

These are unsightly, uncomfortable, thick and hardened layers of skin, often caused by wearing shoes that don’t fit well.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Surgery
  • Physical therapy

Diabetic Foot Conditions

Poor circulation leaves people with diabetes vulnerable to numerous foot conditions, including swelling, ulcers, callouses and neuropathy (tingling or numbness).

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Medical management
  • Surgery
  • Wound Care
  • Diabetes Management Program
  • Footwear Evaluation
  • Physical or occupational therapy

Hammertoe

Often caused by shoes that don’t fit properly, hammertoe describes a condition in which the second, third or fourth toes bend in an unusual direction.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Medical management
  • Surgery
  • Physical or occupational therapy

Heel Pain

A variety of conditions can cause pain, swelling and discomfort in the heel.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Assessment
  • Medical management
  • Physical therapy
  • Footwear assessment

Nail Problems/Athlete’s Foot

Fungal conditions that, because they are easily spread in wet environments like locker rooms and showers, often affect athletes.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Medical management

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis, a common sports injury, describes injury or inflammation to the wide band of tissue at the bottom of the foot, connecting the heel to the toes.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Medical management
  • Surgery
  • Physical therapy
  • Footwear evaluation

Stress Fractures

A stress fracture, caused by trauma, is a tiny crack or break in a bone in the foot or ankle.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Medical management
  • Physical therapy

Fractures

A fracture is a partial or completely broken bone.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical Management
  • Surgery, including closed reduction, ORIF, fixation
  • Physical therapy

Gout

Gout is a form of arthritis that can bring sudden, burning pain along with swelling and stiffness, most commonly to the big toe.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management

Arthritis

Arthritis is inflammation of a joint. There are several different types; the most common is osteoarthritis, caused by wear and tear, usually from age or overuse. Other kinds of arthritis can be caused by genetics or illness.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Surgery: Arthroplasty
  • Physical therapy/Occupational therapy

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

A repetitive stress injury that brings pain, tingling and/or numbness, carpal tunnel syndrome is a compression of the median nerve that goes from the forearm to the palm of the hand.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiograph
  • Steroid injection
  • Medical management
  • Surgery
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Ganglion Cyst

Also known as a synovial cyst or Gideon’s Disease, this is a small, fluid-filled lump that can form along the tendons or on the joints of the hand or wrist (and less commonly on the foot or ankle).

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Surgery
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Hand Tendon Problems

Overuse can cause the tendons in the hands to become inflamed and painful.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Surgery
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Wrist Tendon Problems

Overuse can cause the tendons in the wrist to become inflamed and painful.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Surgery
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Tendonitis

Overuse injuries can bring inflammation of the tendons in the hands, wrists, shoulders or elbows.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Surgery
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

The hip joint includes the femur, with a ball on top, fits into the socket of the pelvis, made of three joined bones –ilium, the ishium and the pubis.

Hip Arthritis

Arthritis is inflammation of a joint. Of the several different types, the most common by far is osteoarthritis, caused by wear and tear, usually from age or overuse. Other kinds of arthritis can be caused by genetics or illness.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Surgery
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Bursitis

Bursitis is the term used to describe an inflammation in the bursa, fluid-filled sacs acting as cushions between joints. Usual causes are injury, repetitive stress or pressure.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Surgery
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Hip Dislocation

More common in women than men, hip dislocation occurs when the ball-shaped femur slips out of the cup-shaped receptacle in the pelvic bone. Hip dislocation sometimes occurs as the result of a congenital condition but is more commonly caused by trauma.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Surgery: closed reduction, revision arthroplasty with demand match implants, adductor brace
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Hip Fracture

A hip fracture occurs when there is a crack or break in the upper quarter of the thigh bone (femur).

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Surgery: ORIF, hemi-arthroplasty, total hip arthroplasty
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

The knee joint is where the thighbone (femur), shinbone (tibia), and kneecap (patella) meet, covered by the protective kneecap.

ACL Injuries

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) runs diagonally across the middle of the knee, providing rotational stability and keeping the tibia in place.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Surgery: reconstruction/repair
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Knee Arthritis

Arthritis is inflammation of a joint. There are several types; the most common is osteoarthritis, caused by wear and tear on the joint.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Surgery
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Knee Pain

Knee pain is typically caused by arthritis or an injury. Age and obesity raise the likelihood of experiencing knee pain.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Surgery
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Ligament Injuries

ACL, MCL, PCL – Strain, sprain and tears are common ACL, MCL and PCL injuries.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Surgery: reconstruction/repair
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Tendonitis

Overuse injuries can bring inflammation of the tendons in the knee.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Torn Meniscus

The meniscus is a large, rubbery, c-shaped tendon that cushions the knee joint. There are two, located on the inside and outside of the knee.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Surgery: reconstruction/repair
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

The shoulder is one of the largest, most flexible and complex joints in the body.

Frozen Shoulder

Also called adhesive capsulitis, frozen shoulder brings pain and stiffness to the shoulder joint, making it difficult to move.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Arthritis

Arthritis is inflammation of a joint. There are several different types; the most common is osteoarthritis, caused by wear and tear, usually from age or overuse. Other kinds of arthritis can be caused by genetics or illness.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Surgery: total shoulder arthroplasty, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Bursitis

Bursitis is the term used to describe an inflammation in the bursa, fluid-filled sacs acting as cushions between joints. Usual causes are injury, repetitive stress or pressure.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Steroid injection
  • Surgery: arthroplasty
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Rotator Cuff Injuries

The rotator cuff, made of muscles and tendons, holds your shoulder joints in place. Rotator cuff injury is a common cause of shoulder pain.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Surgery: arthroscopy
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Shoulder Dislocation

Typically caused by a fall, shoulder dislocation occurs when the upper arm pops out of the cup-shaped socket bone of the shoulder.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Surgery: closed reduction
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Shoulder Separation

Shoulder separation is an injury to the ligaments that connect the collarbone and shoulder blade.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies. Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Radiographs
  • Medical management
  • Surgery
  • Physical therapy/occupational therapy

Overextension or overexertion of a muscle, tendon or ligament can cause a sprain or strain. Though they sound minor, many people find recovery from a sprain or strain to be longer and more challenging than recovering from a fracture or clean break.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Care always begins with a thorough assessment, to evaluate the likely cause and extent of orthopedic pain. Your assessment includes a physical examination, medical history and usually some tests, including range of motion, sensitivity and, often, imaging studies.

Care is always personalized to your needs but may include:

  • Medical management
  • Physical therapy